The infinitive ends in
If we cut off the
-r we are left with the present stem. You will notice that this ends in one of three vowels.
This present stem is used for the present tense and applies to all person and both numbers.
Yo ama, tu ama, il ama, etc. (I love, etc.)
The past tense is formed by adding
-t to the present stem.
Yo decident ella lavat noi finit
The future is formed by the auxiliary "va" and the conditional by "vell".
|Ili va ataccar||They will attack|
|Ella va dar me li libre||She will give me the book|
|Il vell venir si il ne vell esser malad||He would come if he were not sick|
The past participle is the same as the past tense, e.g., "amat", "decidet", "finit". The present participle is formed by adding
-nt to the present stem. In the case of verbs whose root ends in
ent is added, e.g., "amant", "decident", "finient".
The verb "to have" is "haver" but as an auxiliary this is shortened to "har" :
|Vu havet un cane.||You had a dog.|
|Yo ha scrit un articul pri apes.||I have written an article about bees.|
|Ella hat vestit se ante que su amica venit.||She had dressed herself before her friend came.|
|Noi vell har protestat contra li prohibition.||We would have protested against the prohibition.|
The passive is formed in the same way as in English.
Note however that the present tense of "esser" is "es".
It es productet de carbon. (It is produced from coal.)
Other auxiliaries are shown below. Note that "mey" is invariable.
|Ella mey venir||She may come.|
|Tu volet parlar con me.||You wished to speak to me.|
|Noi deve insister.||We must insist.|
|Vu posse partiprender.||You can take part.|
The present stem is used as the imperative. A politer form consists of the word "ples" plus the infinitive.
Veni (or) Ples venir. (Come)
The participles can be used as adjectives, or by adding
-o as nouns.
|Li amat filio||The beloved son|
|Li amant matre||The loving mother|
|Li amanto vole besar su amata||The lover wishes to kiss his beloved|
Probabilmen il va venir deman. Yo ha sempre regretat que yo nequande respondet a su lettre. Noi discusset lor desires relatent li selection de un nov secretario. Un serviente del guvernament guidat nos tra li porta. Ples observar li regules.