Lesson 5


There are many derivatives formed from verbs and when we have learned how to form these we shall have a greatly increased vocabulary at our disposal. These derivatives are formed either from the present stem or the perfect stem.


To the present stem are added the suffixes -bil, -da, and -ment.


The suffix -bil expresses possibility. Verbs in -er add -ibil.

navigarto navigatenavigabil
notarto notenotabil
audirto hearaudibil
picterto paintpictibil


The suffix -da expresses activity in duration; verbs in -er add -ida.

leerto readleidareading
babillarto chatterbabilladagossip


The suffix -ment expresses the concrete result of an action.

mover, movement. armar, armament. assortir, assortiment.

Note that verbs in -er with a vowel preceding lose the -e.

arguer, argument.


The perfect stem is found by what is known as the "Rule of de Wahl". We cut off the -r of infinitive or -er from verbs ending in this way. Then :

a) If we are left with a vowel, add -t.

b) If we are left with a -d or -r change this letter to -s.

c) In all other cases what we have left is the perfect stem. To the perfect stem are added the suffixes -ion, -iv, -ura, -or, -ori.


These rules are seen in the following examples :

administraradministrat-ion, -iv, -or, -ori
deciderdecis-ion, -iv
currer (to run)curs-iv
instructerinstruct-ion, -iv, -or, -ori
crearcreat-ura, -ion, -iv, -or, -ori


The suffix -ion expresses action or the place of the action.

separar, separation. observar, observation. divider, division. prohibir, prohibition. posir (to put, place), position.


The suffix -ura denotes the concrete result of the action.

picter, pictura. mixter, mixtura. pleser, plesura. rupter (to break), ruptura. dictar (to dictate), dictatura (dictatorship).


The suffix -iv forms adjectives with the meaning "that which is".

decorar, decorativ. adherer, adhesiv. afirmar, afirmativ. prohibir, prohibitiv.


The noun-suffix -ie is often added to the present participles of static verbs to form abstract nouns indicating a state.

esser, essentie. consister, consistentie. perseverar, perseverantie.


It will be seen that the suffixes -ntie, -ion, -ment, -ura shade into each other, the latter being the more concrete. English usage will nearly always see you through.



Li audition evenit in li teatre u mult persones esset. Yo opine que li navigation es un arte. Ella condamnat li spĂ­ritu competitiv. Noi va competir con vos in li observantie del regules.

See more here: https://occidental-lang.com/derive-from-verb/